Tuesday, October 7, 2014

Horses and Migration Part 2

Horse and iron as pointers of heritage
If this is true, then the Indo-European speakers must have come to India with some other major advantage. Two other technological innovations, known to have originated outside of India are excellent candidates. They are the domestication of horse, around 6,000 years before present on the shores of Black Sea in present Ukraine, and the use of iron, around 5,000 years before present in Anatolia in present day Turkey. Riding of horses or hitching them to carts greatly increases the mobility and the military or trading capabilities of a group. While cattle, sheep, goat, pig were all domesticated in mid-east around 10,000 years before present, the horse was domesticated 4,000 years later in a separate centre in the Asian steppes. The most favoured theory of the spread of India-European languages today is that it was the language of these horse people who came to dominate Europe, west Asia and much of India over the next 4000 years. As a ruling class, they are believed to have imposed their language over Europe, without making any major genetic contributions to the populations. They may have wielded parallel influence in India. The horse appears in archaeological records between 2000 to 500 years after the first appearance of cultivation of crops and husbanding of cattle, sheep, goat and pigs in different parts of India (Figure. 16).
Particular styles of burial appear to accompany the horse people. These burial styles show links with styles noted in Central Asian homeland of Indo-European speakers strengthening our belief in the possibility that the Indo-European speakers indeed made their way to India propelled by the advantage that the control over horses conferred.
The people associated with Vedic traditions and Sanskrit language definitely used horses, and may have been one group, though perhaps not the only group of Indo-European speakers to enter the subcontinent. These people also seem to have been associated with cremation as a method of disposal of the dead. Cremation is today the dominant mode amongst most Indo-European speaking communities of India, burial remains common amongst Dravidian speaking communities, especially those affected little by the process of Sanskritisation (Fig.17).
It is also possible that it was the use of iron that conferred an important advantage to certain groups of people migrating to India; groups that may have included speakers of Indo-European languages. The archaeological evidence suggests that use of iron is not necessarily associated with that of the horse, and appears either later than or ahead of the former in different parts of the country (Fig.18 and 19).

Reference :- 
Website :- http://ces.iisc.ernet.in/hpg/cesmg/peopling.html
Madhav Gadgil and N.V. Joshi
Centre for Ecological Sciences
Indian Institute of Science
Bangalore 560 012, India

S.Manoharan and Suresh Patil
Anthropological Survey of India, Southern Regional Office
2963, Gokulam Road, Mysore 570002, India.

Observation on above data of SNP R1a1a , Allele J2a  : Please Verify
1.) 1700 to 1500 years before (M512) migration have settled in Muslim in Bengal and Muslim in Andra Pradesh.
2.) 2500 to 2100 years before present (M192) migration have settled in Sindhudurg District of south Kokan.
3.) 2600 years before present (M192) migration settled in Bihar, West Uttar Pradesh North India, South Konkan.
4.) 2900 to 2700 before present (M192) migration have settled in Ratnagiri District of South Konkan, Goa, Andra Pradesh.
+5.) 3400 to 3000 years before (M192) migration have setted in Kerla, Malvan in South Konkan,  South Gujarat.
6.) 3900 to 3500 years before present unknown in India.